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Bachelor Exam Topics - Linguistics


Phonetics and Phonology

  1. Articulators.
  2. The system of English vowels compared to Czech vowels (articulation, quality, quantity and its variation).
  3. English diphthongs and their articulation.
  4. The system of English consonants compared to Czech consonants (articulation, articulation energy, voicing).
  5. English consonant clusters (aspiration, devoicing, assimilation, assibilation, elision).
  6. Syllable, vowel reduction in unstressed syllables.
  7. Weak forms.
  8. Words stress and its placement.
  9. Rhythm, linking.
  10. Intonation and its functions.
  11. Fundamental concepts of phonology (phonemes and allophones, distinctive features, classification of phonemes).
  12. Phonetic transcription.
  13. Spelling-pronunciation correspondence.
  14. Irregular pronunciation (common words, personal names, geographic names).
  15. British and American pronunciation compared.
  16. The most common pronunciation mistakes made by native speakers of Czech.


Introduction to English Linguistics

  1. Linguistics and language, language as a means of communication, levels and functions of language.
  2. Typology of languages, genetic classification of languages, structural classification of languages.
  3. Phonetics and phonology. Phoneme, allophone, vowels, consonants, stress, intonation.
  4. Morphology. Morphemes, allomorphs, grammatical categories, parts of speech.
  5. Lexicology, word formation.
  6. Lexical semantics.
  7. Syntax.
  8. History of the English language. Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English, Modern English.
  9. History of linguistics (an overview). Structuralism. The Prague School.
  10. Regional varieties of English. British and American English (a comparison). Basic features of Scottish, Irish, Canadian and Australian English.
  11. Development of writing.



  1. Morphology - Introduction into the study. Types and roles of morphology. A structural language level between phonology and syntax.
  2. Basic morphological units: morpheme, word, parts of speech, grammatical categories. Morph, allomorph, morpheme. Types of morphemes. Words. Types of words. Venn diagram. Classification criteria of word classes. Word-formation. Affixation. Conversion. Ambiguity in English.
  3. Nouns. Classification of nouns. Grammatical categories in English and Czech. Singular and plural subjects. The plural of nouns. Foreign plural. Singular and plural invariable nouns. Pair nouns. Group nouns. The possessive form. Some other uses of possessive. Countable and uncountable nouns. The of-structure expressing quantity.
  4. Category of definiteness. The form and the main uses of the articles. Generic and non-generic reference. Situational and anaphoric definiteness. The articles in generalizations. Some special uses. Articles with names and places.
  5. Gender distinction. Grammatical vs. Natural Gender. Gender classes in modern English. Gender marking in animate and inanimate nouns. Personification. The Case. Types of cases. Quantifiers.
  6. Pronouns and determiners. Their function and use. Kinds of pronouns. Personal, possessive and demonstrative pronouns. Reflexive and emphatic pronouns. Interrogative and relative pronouns. Indefinite pronouns.
  7. Numerals. Numeral types. Numbers above a million. Specialized numbers.
  8. Adjectives. Classification of adjectives. Comparison of adjectives. Adjective order. Adverbs. Types and forms of adverbs. Comparison of adverbs. Comparative analysis of adjectives and adverbs in English and Czech.
  9. Prepositions. Classification of prepositions. Postpositions. Idiomatic phrases with prepositions. Conjunctions. Interjections.
  10. Verbs. Definition of the verb. Verb categories. Person and number. Subject/verb agreement.
  11. Form and function. Verb classes. Transitive and intransitive verbs. Auxiliary verbs and ordinary verbs.
  12. Modal verbs. Types of modality. The use of dare, need, ought to and used to. Irregular verbs.
  13. Finite and non-finite verb forms. The infinitive. Infinitive phrases. The gerund. The participle. Participial and gerundive phrases.
  14. Verb tenses. Sequence of tenses. Simple and continuous tenses. The tense of a verb in English and Czech. Present tense. The form and uses.
  15. Preterite. The form and uses. Present perfect and Past perfect. The form and uses.
  16. The future. Progressive aspect and Perfect aspect.
  17. Voice. Active and passive. The passive. The use of the passive. Passive verb forms. The passive with get. The agent in passive sentences. Active forms with passive meaning.
  18. Phrasal verbs.
  19. Mood. Forms and functions.
  20. Aspect in English and Czech.



  1. Lexicology, word, lexeme, vocabulary, lexical units, lexicography, relationship with other branches of linguistics, synchronic and diachronic lexicology.
  2. Word-formation processes in English: Definition, status and scope of word-formation. Categories of word-formation. Constituents of word-formation.
  3. Derivation. Prefixation, suffixation. Classification of prefixes and suffixes. Stress in prefixes and suffixes.
  4. Compounding. Criteria. Structure of compounds. Stress in compounds. Classification of compounds. Combining-form compounds.
  5. Conversion. Terminology. Restrictions in conversion. Full vs. partial conversion.
  6. Quantitative changes: clipping, blending, back formation, acronymy.
  7. Phraseology. Fixedness scale. Idioms - basic features, criteria for division.
  8. Lexicalisation. Definition. Nonce formation, institutionalization, lexicalization. Types of lexicalization.



  1. Levels of syntactic analysis.
  2. Fundamental concepts of syntax.
  3. Sentence form and function.
  4. Negation.
  5. Structural patterns of English sentences, verbal valency.
  6. English equivalents of Czech subjectless clauses.
  7. Clause constituents, their formal realisations and semantic roles; English and Czech clause constituents compared.
  8. English word order compared to Czech.
  9. Functional sentence perspective.



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